c) The new east Jewish languages show numerous have: biggest fret (1), transform regarding [Theta] to 1 (4), reinterpretation regarding verb group given that figure (5), and you may reflexive pronouns considering nos- (17). Speaking of areal features and this period might split between Halabja into one-hand and you will Koy Sanjaq and Azerbaijan to your other. This isn’t clear where dialect each originates, however they are almost certainly lent from 1 toward anyone else and not passed down in keeping.
This type of three biggest clusters away from isoglosses portray just a little part of one’s evidence that is brought to sustain into taxonomy of NENA languages. Hoberman (1988, 573), having fun with evidence from pronouns, demonstrates the current presence of a northern Iraqi dialect group (right here represented of the Zakho, Tisqopa, and you may Aradhin) and that can not be thought of according to the minimal analysis demonstrated right here. What is needed now could be one another thicker definitions of dialects already noted, so as that more widespread and you may distinguishing properties is obtainable, and then have field work so you’re able to list the many languages being into brink out of extinction.
step one Many thanks are due to people that contributed investigation and you may suggestions, such as for example Gene Gragg, Robert Hoberman, and you can Jo Rubba. E.H. summer stipend.
Such as for example, f and you can g had been chosen inside the terminology such as etrog ‘citron’ and you can sefer ‘scroll of one’s law’, where about handed down Aramaic words f will have become p and you will grams would have disappeared
3 Garbell (1964, 100-103) says that sound system regarding Jewish Azerbaiaic out of Kurdish. Their primary research for it ‘s the enunciation away from Hebrew financing-words inside dialect. Hebrew loanwords into the smooch Jewish Azerbaijani retain some sounds that happen to be erased otherwise blended with individuals in the common Neo-Aramaic code. Garbell says that these retentions prove these Hebrew terms was indeed borrowed to begin with during the Kurdish, and therefore several Kurdish sound system after moved on so you can Neo-Aramaic. It seems more likely that the Hebrew issues about dialect did not participate in new voice alterations in concern due to the newest special religious sign in that they fall in. They might have even changed then started restored with the basis of one’s conventional enunciation of surrounding teams.
4 An increasing + demonstrates that the next term is actually noticable for the suprasegmental function ’emphasis’ which is discovered to some degree in most NENA dialects. Phonetically, stress is actually state-of-the-art, but the top parts is actually velarization, and is also have a tendency to due to the presence of the fresh emphatic consonants t and you may s.
eight Throughout the dialect off Tyari [Theta] will will get s. Which dialect, that has been verbal ahead of 1915 within the a neighbor hood away from Hakkari, is not chatted about here since materials in it is diminished.
8 This isn’t clear if this type is present in the the Halabja dialect. My informants from there know they, but said it was far more trait of your surrounding city of Suleimaniya. Nevertheless, it’s unfamiliar regarding dialect of one’s Jews regarding Sanandaj.
9 Robert Hoberman means in my opinion that the NENA versions can get have originated an enthusiastic unattested metathesized elizabeth[Theta]strip ezdi.
Boyarin, Daniel. 1981. Inside the Bono Homini Donum: Essays in Historical Linguistics in Memory of J. Alexander Kerns, ed. Yoel L. Arbeitman and you can Allan Roentgen. Bomhard. Amsterdam Training from the Concept and you may History of Linguistic Technology, collection IV. Newest Issues inside the Linguistic Principle 16. Part II, 613-49. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
An inquiry with the Creation of one’s Middle Aramaic Languages
Garbell, Irene. 1964. Apartment Conditions and you may Syllables inside Jewish Eastern The newest Aramaic away from Persian Azerbaijan plus the Continguous Areas (An issue of Multilingualism). When you look at the Knowledge when you look at the Egyptology and Linguistics honoring H. J. Polotsky, ed. H. B. Rosen, 86-103. Jerusalem: Israel Mining Society.